I have extracted this little lot from the Adobe website.
- Show/hide side panels - Tab
- Show/hide all panels - Shift + Tab
- Show/hide toolbar - T
- Show/hide Module Picker - F5
- Show/hide Filmstrip - F6
- Show/hide left panels - F7
- Show/hide right panels - F8
I use these all the time when working in Lightroom to speed up my work. Check out the link above for the full list of Lightroom keyboard shortcuts.
And one that works all over the place is the Alt key - just hold that down and watch the text change in numerous tools.